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#1 Tale

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Posted 14 February 2014 - 07:17 PM

This is a thread containing helpful links related to topics usually discussed here. Feel free to suggest more links. I didn't want to overload the post with stuff I usually use (as these may be selective).
 
Philosophy
 
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
 
Science
 
TalkOrigins - Useful in an evolution vs creationism debate and knowledge of evolutionary theory in general. For those who have discovered a problem with evolutionary theory or something related, this problem has very likely been addressed here. Misconceptions about evolution are also listed and addressed here.

 

Neuroscience for Kids - a layman friendly site about neuroscience. 

 

Religion
 
Internet Sacred Text Archive
 
Society
 
CIA World Factbook
FBI Resources
OECD Worldwide Statistical Resources - A good starting point for finding statistical information collected by respected bodies in various countries around the world.
 
Debating and Arguing
 
List of fallacies - A less comprehensive but probably more accessible way to learn about and identify more common errors is this site.
List of cognitive biases
List of memory biases
 
How to Write a Debate Outline
(I'll probably put a few common mistakes made in arguments and debates in a spoiler section here.) 

 

General
 
List of paradoxes
List of common misconceptions
List of misconceptions about illegal drugs


Edited by Tale, 16 January 2015 - 05:25 AM.

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#2 AYAME

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Posted 14 February 2014 - 07:49 PM

This is not a debate thread. This is a thread to give helpful links on good debating practices whether that be general debate topics or for specific topics.
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#3 Peleihno

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Posted 14 February 2014 - 08:43 PM

CIA World Factbook


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"Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty
lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding." — Louis Brandeis, 1928


#4 disastrousmaster

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Posted 14 February 2014 - 10:29 PM

FBI Statistics


Edited by disastrousmaster, 14 February 2014 - 10:30 PM.

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                                                    <p align=center><a target=_blank href=http://www.nodiatis....personality.htm><img border=0 src=http://www.nodiatis.com/pub/19.jpg></a></p>

“The man who passes the sentence should swing the sword. If you would take a man's life, you owe it to him to look into his eyes and hear his final words. And if you cannot bear to do that, then perhaps the man does not deserve to die.”― Eddard Stark, A game of thrones

Spoiler funny quotes

 

 

Vote for dis person plox


#5 DarkNemesis

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Posted 15 February 2014 - 10:55 AM

I would suggest this thread be PINNED.


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#6 Nmaan

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Posted 15 February 2014 - 02:17 PM

You could try this

http://www.wikihow.c...-Debate-Outline

The second half is the more useful half but the whole thing might help make your arguments more structured and avoid some common pitfalls.


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Feed me and I'll be your friend forever, steal my treats and I make you into meats.

 

I'm big and I'm bad, so try not to make me mad. xD

 

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QT with yours truly

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Number 2

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#7 Milareppa

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Posted 15 February 2014 - 06:01 PM

If any debates need to look up official statistics, the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) page is a good starting point for locating the major respected statistical bodies of countries around the world:

OECD Worldwide Statistical Sources.
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#8 Makaze

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Posted 15 February 2014 - 07:13 PM

List of fallacies
List of cognitive biases
List of memory biases
List of paradoxes

List of common misconceptions
List of misconceptions about illegal drugs
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#9 Tale

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Posted 14 March 2014 - 02:48 PM

Including this here, because it might better to see what people think of it before I add it to the first post :

http://blog.rbutr.co...rmation-safely/



#10 Makaze

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Posted 14 March 2014 - 10:26 PM

I doubt it has much application in this section where only reliable resources are accepted and encouraged and links are not policed. It seems to have minimal links to rebuttals which is where most of the value would come from. I think it would only be effective if it were enforced on all link posting and/or if all posters contributed.

Edited by Makaze, 15 March 2014 - 03:55 PM.

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#11 Sauron

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Posted 27 April 2014 - 12:28 PM

My method of comprehending news reports, which might be useful to some of you...

 

Truly comprehending the news with a single view is sometimes not possible - I am not dyslexic or retarded. I view news reports in its most simplest incarnation as a cubed television and at its most complicated incarnation as a rubix cubed television: where the information (via projection and so on) of the news changes over time. News is a very complex enterprise, journalists are managing local, national and sometimes global dissemintation of information, which is why it needs to be sophisticated; it's not surprising that I need an equally sophisticated method to comprehend it. When I watch the news I'm looking at one side of the cube. The other sides of the news remain obscured to all but the people who have additional information or skill to discover and subsequently interpret. The obscured screens of the cubed news are what I like to call my blindspots. It's easy to comprehend the visible news being reported but sometimes there's more underlying the news reports. There might be double, triple, even quadruple screens of news. 95% of the time I frankly don't care what's underlying the visible news. There are instances that I'd like to grasp at double and triple meanings - if there are any...and I view the blindspots like I would dark matter or anything else that isn't easily viewed.

 

While studying I came across 3 terms that I use in the analytical process. The first is locution: information. The second is illocution: meaning. And finally perlocution: the effect of the meaning. The visible news reports that I view are locution i.e. information. News organisations are in the business of reporting news, in addition they are in the business of causing an effect in the world. They use their information in such a way that it gets interpreted by people, causing the meaning to change. Most of us don't interpret the news, we view locution as fact..like schoolboys. Some of us interpret the LITERAL news, that is, analyse the metaphors, euphemisms and so on of the news that is spoken. Few of us look to other news organisations to get a better grasp of the news being reported. Whenever we seek alternative news reports, we are making an attempt to fill in our blindspots...simply interpreting the visible news won't suffice in the processing of the news. And even smaller number of people waste time to gather/recall all news reports over time in order to compare and contrast them from varying perspectives. Fewer people even bother with the body languages and the theatre that news reporting can become. And a very small percentage actually are truly informed...no amount of analysis can help the average viewer like me to see the true meanings behind news reports...only journalists have access to true meanings and therefore the people who are truly informed. We are merely customers getting the bare minimum of information in some cases...and most of the time news organisations have valid reasons to withhold information.

 

Comprehension of the news is therefore a process, not something we can instantly grasp after a single viewing. The whole process can actually be very fun [with the exception of few well documented instances]. I don't worry so much about whether I am getting my interpretations right first time. Over time, when additional information is available, I'll have a better grasp of the news.... I think it's better to analyse the news inductively. Of course my own needs have a huge influence on how I view the news and what I take from it. To counter any irrationality that emotions inevitably produce I like to think of the most rational interpretations...sometimes putting all my hypotheses side by side. From my point of view, even when the rational interpretation appears to have the highest probability of being true, I would instead put the most irrational at the forefront of my mind for various reasons - the most recent times fear and uncertainty have prevailed, forcing the most rational to lower positions of importance. At the height of my fears, absolutely nobody, regardless how much I like, was trustworthy. From a certain point of view that might appear irrational but it's not illogical from my point of view, especially when uncertainty is part of the equation. I can't afford to view some news reports like a scientist...if the most safest interpretation isn't at the forefront there might be another time to interpret news. I mean, think about it in terms of natural disasters. If the news reports there is a chance something devastating could happen e.g. during a category 1 hurricane you might get killed, would you act like a tough guy or take the news seriously? I'd take all necessary precautions during times of danger and keep the worst case scenarios at the forefront of my mind.


Edited by Sauron, 27 April 2014 - 06:36 PM.

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#12 m1hawkgsm

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Posted 28 April 2014 - 08:12 PM

Years ago we had two Lincoln-Douglas debates, and they were pretty fun. Very heavy on research and being articulate in forming opinions. Heavily value based as well, so I recommend they happen more often if people have the time (though granted it takes some effort, what with judges and all).

In any case, three resources here (two legit and one food for thought):
A. Definition of Lincoln-Douglas style debate and history.

B. National Speech & Debate Association (also known as National Forensics League)--- VERY great resource, and they post yearly debate competitions for schools at the university and secondary level.

C. OMF's first LD debate-- mangafreak2128 and Eebster had a nice system set up for actually doing it (and as a participant, I can definitely say it was really fun).

 

Cheers~


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#13 AYAME

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Posted 11 July 2014 - 08:40 AM

I know Makaze has posted a list of fallacies but I'm including this list as its terminology matches the terminology often used in the debates here.

https://yourlogicalfallacyis.com
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#14 Makaze

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Posted 11 July 2014 - 05:08 PM

Very cool interface. Nice find.

 

For categorization purposes: AYAME's list is less formal and complete than Wikipedia's, but is great for a much quicker reference table of the most common informal fallacies.


Edited by Makaze, 11 July 2014 - 05:10 PM.

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#15 Goddess Nike

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Posted 15 August 2014 - 10:06 PM

I have just a few astronomy / cosmology links, it's not the most prolific topic discussed but it does come up enough in the god debate and in the alien thread. The first deals CMB and the others (Candles already posted two of them in the other thread) with various aspects of General Relativity.

http://ned.ipac.calt...ey/Kinney3.html

http://ned.ipac.calt...3/Carroll8.html

http://ned.ipac.calt...3/Carroll4.html

http://web.mit.edu/edbert/GR/gr1.pdf
 



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#16 YoWid

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Posted 02 September 2014 - 10:45 AM

HERE SOME EXCERPTS FROM PLATO AND A PLATYPUS

 

(On Argument from Analogy, p.3)
 
Here's... a riff on the Argument From Analogy, which says that if two outcomes are similar, they must have a similar cause:
 
A ninety-year-old man went to the doctor and said, "Doctor, my eighteen-year old wife is expecting a baby."
The doctor said, " Let me tell you a story. A men went hunting, but instead of a gun, he picked up an umbrella by mistake. When a bear suddenly charged at the man, he picked up the umbrella, shot the bear, and killed it."
The man said, "Impossible. SOmeone else must have shot that bear."
The doctor said, "My point exactly!"
 
You couldn't ask for a better illustration for the Argument from Analogy, a philosophical ploy currently (and erroneously) being used in the argument for Intelligent Design (i.e., if there's an eyeball, there must be an Eyeball-Designer-in-the-Sky.)
 
 
(On Rationalism)
 
The optimist says."The glass is half full."
The pessimist says, "The glass is half empty."
The rationalist says, "This glass is twice as big as it needs to be."
 
...the joke clarifies the obvious truth that optimism and pessimism are personal attitudes that have nothing to do with Leibniz's neutral, rational description of the world.
 
(On Teleology, pp. 8-9)
 
A seeker has heard that the wisest guru in all of India lives atop India's highest mountain. So the seeker treks over hill and Delhi until he reaches the fabled mountain. It's incredibly steep, and more than once he slips and falls. By the time he reaches the top, he is full of cuts and bruises, but there is the guru, sitting cross-legged in front of his cave.
"O, wise guru," the seeker says, "I have come to you to ask what the secret of life is."
"Ah, yes, the secret of life," the guru says. "The secret of life is a teacup."
"A teacup? I came all the way up here to find the meaning of life, and you tell me it's a teacup!"
The guru shrugs. "So maybe it isn't a teacup."
 
This guru is acknowledging that formulating the telos of life is a slippery business. Furthermore, it's not everybody's cup of tea.
 
(On Empiricism)
“Some have argued that because the universe is like a clock, there must be a Clockmaker. As the eighteenth-century British empiricist David Hume pointed out, this is a slippery argument, because there is nothing that is really perfectly analogous to the universe as a whole, unless it's another universe, so we shouldn't try to pass off anything that is just a part of this universe. Why a clock anyhow? Hume asks. Why not say the universe is analogous to a kangaroo? After all, both are organically interconnected systems. But the kangaroo analogy would lead to a very different conclusion about the origin of the universe: namely, that it was born of another universe after that universe had sex with a third universe.”
 
(On the Variations of the Golden Rule, p.85)
 
Hinduism—Do not to others what ye do not wish done to yourself…this is the whole Dharma. Heed it well.
 
Judaism—What is hateful to you, do not do to your neighbor; that is the entire Torah; the rest is commentary; go learn it.
 
Zoroastrianism—Human nature is good only when it does not do unto another whatever is not good for its own self.
 
Buddhism—Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.
 
Confucianism—Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself.
 
Islam—No one of you is a believer until you desire for another that which you desire for yourself.
 
Bahai’I—Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee, and say not that which thou doest not. This is my command unto thee, do thou observe it.
 
(On Machiavellianism, p.150)
 
Unsurprisingly, Machiavelli was a proponent of the death penalty, because it was in the best interest of the prince to be seen as severe rather than merciful. In other words, he agreed with the cynic who said, “Capital punishment means never having to say, ‘You again?’”
 
 
BON APPETIITTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT

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another story for another day

 


#17 Candles

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Posted 27 September 2014 - 12:00 PM

http://evolution.ber..._teacherfaq.php

Some common misconceptions about evolution, I've seen more than a few of them thrown out recently so I thought it might help.
 

 


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#18 Goddess Nike

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Posted 15 January 2015 - 02:54 PM

Some Neuroscience stuff, it's really layman friendly (especially compared to the stuff I study) but it covers basic neuroanatomy and physiology pretty well in addtion to some common neurological disorders and conditions.


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#19 Goddess Nike

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Posted 10 February 2016 - 08:44 PM

I present these resources partly at Tale's request and partly to possibly promote discussion in the Cosmology thread my sister created.

I've divided the books into categories based on level of difficulty. I've read all of these (except for two of the popular science ones by Chown and Barrow) so if there's any questions regarding any specific one feel free to ask but I won't write a review for each of them since there's almost two dozen.

-----
Popular Science (Simplified, non technical, requires little understanding of...anything really)

The Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe - Simon Singh
Our Evolving Universe - Malcolm Longair
The Fabric of the Cosmos - Brian Greene
Afterglow of Creation - Marcus Chown
The Origin of the Universe - John D. Barrow
A Universe from Nothing - Lawerance Krauss

------
Introductory / Undergrad Level (A little more in-depth and comprehensive but requires basic to decent understanding of math and physics)

A First Course in General Relativity - B.F. Schutz
Spacetime Physics - E. Taylor and J. Wheeler
Introductory Astronomy and Astrophysics - Zeilik, Gregory & Smith
Astronomy: the Cosmic Perspective - Zeilik & Gaustad
Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces - Thomas F. Banchoff & Stephen T. Lovett
Introduction to Cosmology - Barbara Ryden
Introduction to Elementary Particles - David Griffiths
Quantum Field Theory and the Standard Model - Matthew D. Schwartz
Foundations of Modern Cosmology - Hawley and Holcomb

-----
Advanced/Graduate Level (These are probably the best books but they're very in-depth and very math intensive)

General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics - N. Straumann
Spacetime and Geometry: An Introduction to General Relativity - Sean Carroll
Statistical Mechanics - R K Pathria & Paul D. Beale
Introduction to Quantum Effects in Gravity - Viatcheslav Mukhanov & Sergei Winitzki
Modern Quantum Mechanics - J. J. Sakurai
Differential Geometry - William C. Graustein
Cosmological Physics - John Peacock

----
These links are in order; an article about common misconceptions about the big bang, an intro to cosmology book, a book about differential geometry (required to understand GR and QFT), and lecture notes on astronomy and topology. Also there's Carrol's work that I linked earlier in the thread.

http://www.mso.anu.e...rDavisSciAm.pdf

http://physics.shari... Matt Roots.pdf

https://groups.csail...lus-indexed.pdf

http://arxiv.org/pdf/0706.1988v2.pdf

http://arxiv.org/pdf...h/9901364v3.pdf

I have a lot more but that's enough for now. I'll also post some Genetics / Molecular Biology links when I can find the right material.


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#20 Goddess Nike

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Posted 13 February 2016 - 04:27 PM

These are for genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. The last one I already posted in the Genetic Engineering thread, the second one is useful even if only for the glossary but the first 13 chapters of it are really good.

http://ghr.nlm.nih.g...ook/basics/gene

http://www.cartercen...etics_FINAL.pdf

http://file.zums.ac.... Ph.D. Hage.pdf
 


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